SK VENUTHURUPALLI 1,2,3 , WE HOY 2,3 , HG HEALY 2,3,4 , Z WANG 2 , A CAMERON 2 , RG FASSETT 5,6
1Renal Services, (TBH) Darling Downs Hospital And Health Service, Toowoomba Queensland; 2NHMRC CKD CRE and CKD.QLD, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland; 3Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland; 4Kidney Health Service (RBWH), Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Brisbane Queensland; 5School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane Queensland; 6Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast Queensland.
Aim: To explore the associations of smoking with other cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Background: CKD is associated with excessive cardiovascular risk. Another strong risk factor is smoking and it is preventable. We analysed the associations between smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors in a CKD cohort from the Darling Downs region in Queensland.
Methods: Participants ≥18 years were recruited from renal clinics in Toowoomba Hospital into the CKD.QLD Registry between June 2011 and December 2016. Smoking was reported as current, former or never. Cardiovascular risk profile was defined by gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and hypertension. The association cardiovascular risk factors and smoking status was analysed by Stata Version 14 and values were reported as percentages and P value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: 1051 participants were recruited, with a median age of 67 years (male 55.3%). The majority (57.1%) of the cohort was either former (45.9%) or current (11.2%) smokers. Compared to non-smokers, smokers were predominantly male (62.7%) and diabetic (47%) with significantly higher rates of coronary artery disease (29.7% Vs 18.8%) (P<0.00), chronic lung disease (22.6% Vs 3.78%) (P<0.00), peripheral vascular disease (10.6% Vs 6.8%) (P<0.03) and premature mortality (13.9% Vs 8.8%) (P<0.01). Smoking status was not significantly associated with BMI, hypertension and Cerebro-vascular disease.
Conclusion: Smoking is a significant additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease in this CKD cohort from the Darling Downs region, as well as for chronic lung disease and premature death. Education and smoking cessation programs to reduce smoking rates to minimise cardiovascular risk in this group may be of benefit. Measures targeting the CKD subpopulation who are current smokers are a priority.