I RUDERMAN1,4, C RAJAPASKE2, A OPPERMAN2, P ROBERTSON3, R MASTERSON1,4, M TIONG1, N TOUSSAINT1,4
1Department of Nephrology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia, 2Departments of Radiology and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, , USA, 3Department of Radiology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, , 4Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne , Parkville, Australia
Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to complex bone disease, affecting both trabecular and cortical bone, and increased fracture risk. Optimal assessment of bone in patients with CKD is yet to be determined. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide three-dimensional assessment of bone microarchitecture, as well as determination of mechanical strength with finite element analysis (FEA).
Methods: We conducted a single-centre, cross-sectional study to determine bone microarchitecture with MRI in CKD patients with SHPT undergoing parathyroidectomy. Within two weeks of surgery, MRI was performed at the distal tibia and biochemical markers of SHPT (parathyroid hormone [PTH] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were collected. Trabecular and cortical topological parameters as well as bone mechanical competence using FEA were assessed. Correlation of MRI findings of bone was made with biochemical markers.
Results: Twenty patients with CKD (15 male, 5 female) underwent MRI at the time of parathyroidectomy (16 on dialysis, 3 with functioning kidney transplant, one pre-dialysis with CKD stage 5). Median PTH at the time of surgery was 138.5pmol/L [39.6 – 186.7pmol/L]. MRI parameters in patients were consistent with trabecular deterioration, with erosion index (EI) 1.01± 0.3, and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) 10.8± 2.9%, as well as poor trabecular network integrity with surface-to-curve ratio (S/C) 5.4± 2.3. There was also evidence of reduced cortical thickness (CTh), with CTh 2.698± 0.630mm, and FEA demonstrated overall poor bone mechanical strength with mean elastic modulus of 2.07 ± 0.44.
Conclusion: Patients with severe SHPT requiring parathyroidectomy have evidence of significant changes in bone microarchitecture with trabecular deterioration, low trabecular and cortical bone volume, and reduced mechanical competence of bone.
Irene Ruderman works as a Nephrologist at The Royal Melbourne Hospital. She recently completed her postdoctoral studies and has an interest in Chronic Kidney Disease Mineral Bone Disorder and vascular calcification.