D WULANSIH 1, H PRASANTO 1, I KUSWADI 1, M PUSPITASARI 1
1Nephrology and Hypertension Division, Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University/Sardjito Hospital, Sleman, Indonesia
Aim: This retrospective cohort study is aimed to analyze the associations between proteinuria and hematuria with in-hospital death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute kidney injury (AKI).
Introduction: Acute kidney injury among hospitalized COVID-19 patients is associated with poor outcomes and in-hospital deaths. Renal complication in COVID-19 including hematuria, proteinuria and AKI were associated with higher mortality. Data regarding the association of proteinuria and hematuria with mortality in COVID-19 patients are limited in Indonesia.
Methods: We identified 39 adult COVID-19 patients confirmed by polymerase chain analysis with AKI between March 1, 2020 to April 30, 2021 at Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. We used fisher’s exact test for bivariate analyses.
Results: Thirty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. We found that 21 of the 39 patients (52.63%) had death in hospitalization. Of 21 patients had death, 17 patients (80.95%) had proteinuria and hematuria, 1 patient (4.8%) had proteinuria, 2 patients (9.5%) had hematuria and 1 patient (4.8%) had normal urinalysis. The result showed that hematuria alone and combination of hematuria and proteinuria were significantly associated with in-hospital death (RR 3.73, 95% CI 1.04-13.41, p 0.005; RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.10-6.39, p 0.007, respectively). However, proteinuria alone was not significantly associated with in-hospital death (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.68–4.74, p 0.153).
Conclusion: Both hematuria and combination of hematuria and proteinuria at the time of hospital admission are associated with mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI.
Keywords: COVID-19 · Hematuria · Proteinuria · Acute kidney injury
Dwi Wulansih was born in Bantul, November 26, 1976, Graduated general practitioner from the Medical Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, at 2002. Graduated Internal Medicine from Gadjah Mada University, at 2013. Now, i am trainee of Nephrology and Hypertension Subspecialization Study Program Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Public Health and Nursing, University of Gadjah Mada/Dr Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia